HIV and AIDS - Animated Medical Dictionary

2 hrs    

Video - 100    

The FOCUS Animated Pocket Dictionary of HIV, the first ever animated dictionary in the subject, fills that void quite effectively. A must-have resource for physicians and students who would greatly benefit from this module, it covers 100 HIV & AIDS related terms and definitions.

Concept

HIV and AIDS - Animated Medical Dictionary
  • Accessory genes

    Accessory genes are additional genes present in viruses and bacteria, which perform additional functions to the cells. These genes are not essential for the normal development of micro-organisms. The accessory genes present in HIV are tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx, and the long terminal repeats (LTRs). These genes help in HIV replication, cell to cell transmission, virion assembly, release etc. In addition, LTRs contain both promoter (i.e., enhancer) and suppressing elements that influence viral transcription.

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  • Acute Infection

    Acute or primary HIV infection is the first stage of HIV infection and usually refers to 1 to 2 weeks after infection where no HIV-antibodies are detected in the blood. This stage is accompanied by mild symptoms such as low grade fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sweating, sore throat, nausea and vomiting.

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  • Acute retrovirus syndrome

    The group of symptoms associated with acute HIV infection is collectively called acute retrovirus syndrome. Commonly observed symptoms are fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, night sweats, sore throat, nausea and vomiting.

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  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe immunological condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS increases susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancers due to the defect in cell-mediated immune response.

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  • Antibodies

    Antibodies or immunoglobulins are immune proteins found in blood or lymph, and produced by B lymphocytes as an immune defence against foreign substances (antigens). They combine with the very antigen that triggers their synthesis to neutralize their action.

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  • Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)

    Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a mechanism of cellular cytotoxicity of virally infected cells. Here, The ADCCs recognize and bind to antigens on the target cell surface. These complexes are recognized by natural killer cells (NK cells) or by other monocyte cells with receptors for antibodies on their surface and they mediate destruction of the pathogen.

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  • Antibody-mediated immunity

    Antibody-mediated immunity, also called humoral immunity, refers to the immune response initiated by antibodies released from B-cells. B-cells, on interaction with antigens, proliferate and differentiate into specialized cells called plasma cells and memory cells. The plasma cells produce antibodies that bind to the antigen and destroy them, while the memory cells remain in the body for a longer duration and stimulate B-cells to produce antibodies when the body is again exposed to the same antigen.

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  • Antigens

    Antigens or immunogens are substances that can stimulate an immune response by producing antibodies against it. Antigens can be proteins or polysaccharides of microorganisms, toxins, foreign blood cells, cells of transplanted organs, etc.

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  • Antigen presenting cell

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) present antigen to T-cells. APC breaks down the antigen into smaller peptides. The processed antigens are complexed with major HLA complex (MHC) class I or II molecules, then transported to the surface of APC where they interact with T cell receptors. Macrophages, Dendritic cells, and B-cells are the major antigen-presenting cells.

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  • Antiretroviral drugs

    Antiretroviral drugs are medications used to treat retrovirus infection, primarily HIV. Antiretroviral medications include various groups of drugs that act at different stages of the viral replication cycle for example entry inhibitors, reverse transcription inhibitors, protease inhibitors, etc. Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the use of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of the disease. This approach is known as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy or HAART.

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