Nephrology - Animated Medical Dictionary

2 hrs    

Video - 93    

The FOCUS Animated Pocket Dictionary of Nephrology, the first ever animated dictionary in the subject, fills the void quite effectively. A must-have resource for physicians and students who would greatly benefit from this module, it covers 90 Nephrology related terms and definitions.

Concept

Nephrology - Animated Medical Dictionary
  • Adrena glands

    Adrenal glands or Suprarenal glands are two triangular endocrine glands located one on top of each kidney.

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  • Albuminuria

    Albuminuria is a pathological condition where more than normal amounts of albumin are present in the urine. High levels of albumin in the urine may be an indication of kidney disease.

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  • Angiomylipoma

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor composed of vascular, adipose and smooth muscle elements; it occurs most commonly as renal tumor containing smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma). Tuberous sclerosis patients are more susceptible to angiomyolipoma. Angiomyolipoma are mostly asymptomatic, but angiomyolipoma rupture causes acute pain or kidney failure in later stages.

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  • Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)

    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It enhances water resorption in the tubules of the kidney, increases peristalsis and constricts blood vessels, thus increasing the blood pressure.

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  • Bartter Syndrome

    Bartter Syndrome is a rare congenital, inherited defect in ascending limb of the loop of Henle. It affects the reabsorption of electrolytes, resulting in low level of sodium, potassium and chloride in blood. Loss of sodium and chloride causes low blood pressure, increased urination frequency and chronic mild dehydration. Mild dehydration increases the production of aldosterone which promotes the secretion of potassium and acid in kidney causing low potassium level in blood (hypokalemia) and loss of acids increases blood pH (alkalosis). Symptoms occurs in early stage include growth failure, increased frequency of urination, excessive thirst, chronic mild dehydration, low blood pressure (hypotension), kidney stone, muscle cramping and weakness. It is diagnosed by physical examination and blood and urine test.

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  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

    Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to detect the nitrogen fraction of urea in the blood. Along with serum creatinine, it helps in screening for kidney disease. BUN normally ranges from 5 to 20 mg/dl, or 1.8 to 7.1 mmol urea per liter. An increase in BUN occurs in conditions associated with a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50% or more. Thus this test may not be very useful in early diagnosis of renal disease, but is more useful in following the progress of the disease and the response to treatment.

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  • Bowman's capsule

    Bowman's capsule is a cup like structure that surrounds the glomerulus of each nephron. The blood passing through the glomerulus is filtered and then collected in bowman's capsule for ultrafiltration. Then it is processed through the tubular system of nephron to form urine.

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  • Calcitriol

    Calcitriol, a form of vitamin D, is a steroid hormone produced in the kidneys and plays a vital role in regulating the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. Calcitriol is synthesized from its precursor molecule calciferol by a series of conversions. The main function of calcitriol is regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and mineralization of bone. Calcitriol enhances the absorption of calcium and phosphorous in small intestine; the rate of bone calcification; and along with PTH, it stimulates the breakdown of bone and release of calcium to blood. During reduced blood calcium levels, calcitriol and PTH stimulate renal reabsorption of calcium.

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  • Calyx

    A cup shaped cavities of the renal pelvis surrounding renal papillae is called calyces. They are of two types, major calyx and minor calyx.  The renal papilla is the tip of the renal pyramid. Renal pyramid consists of tubules of nephrons. The urine from the tubules of nephron drains into minor calyx through renal papillae. The urine is then collected into renal pelvis through major calyx and then passes through the ureter and reaches the urinary bladder.

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  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a long-standing, progressive, and usually permanent loss of kidney function that interferes with its ability to maintain fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. CKD is divided into five stages based on increasing severity. The mild form of the disease is called renal insufficiency while the severe form is termed the end stage renal disease.

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