Hypertension - Animated Medical Dictionary

2 hrs    

Video - 90    

The FOCUS Animated Pocket Dictionary of Hypertension, the first ever animated dictionary in the subject, is a comprehensive reference source for the definition of terms related to hypertension. A must-have resource for physicians and students who would greatly benefit from this module, it covers 90 related terms and definitions.

Concept

Hypertension - Animated Medical Dictionary
  • ACE inhibitors

    ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors are competitive inhibitors of ACE used in the treatment of hypertension. ACE inhibitors block the enzymatic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. A decrease in angiotensin II levels lead to dilation of blood vessels and reduction of sodium and water retention, resulting in a decrease of blood pressure. Another action of ACE inhibitors lowering blood pressure is the prevention of bradykinin breakdown leading to bradykinin stimulated endothelial release of vasodilating agents (nitric oxide and prostacyclin). ACE inhibitors are broadly classified into 3 groups- sulfhydryl-containing agents, dicarboxylate-containing agents and phosphate-containing agents.

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  • Adrenaline

    Adrenaline, also called epinephrine, is a hormone synthesised in the adrenal medulla within the adrenal gland and secreted in response to stress and stimulates autonomic nerve action. This hormone secretion is part of the ‘fight or flight’ reactions - quickening of heart beat, opening up of bronchioles in the lungs, etc - which a body has in response to physical or psychological stress.

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  • Alpha blockers

    Alpha blockers, also known as alpha-adrenergic antagonists or alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, treat hypertension by blocking alpha receptors. Alpha blockers are of two classes Alpha - 1 blockers that bind to Alpha - 1 receptors (located on vascular smooth muscle) and Alpha - 2 blockers that act on Alpha - 2 receptors (located on sympathetic nerve terminals as well as on vascular smooth muscle). By blocking the binding of adrenergic substances which cause constriction of blood vessels and increased cardiac output, alpha blockers dilate blood vessels and decrease cardiac output.

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  • Alpha receptors

    Alpha-receptors, also known as alpha-adrenergic receptors, adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors are G protein-coupled receptors. They act as targets for catecholamines- noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine). Alpha-receptors are of two types - alpha -1 and alpha - 2. Alpha-1 receptors are located on the vascular smooth muscle and are coupled with Gq. Alpha-2 receptors are coupled with Gi and are located on the sympathetic nerve terminals as well as on vascular smooth muscle. Activation of these receptors bring about various physiological reactions, most predominant being vascular smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of intestinal muscle.

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  • Aneurysm

    Aneurysm is the sac-like widening of an artery. Aneurysm occurs due to damage or weakening of the arterial wall. Once formed, size of an aneurysm increases with time, adding to the risk of vessel rupture resulting in hemorrhage. Though most prominent in the aorta, aneurysms also occur in peripheral blood vessels, commonly in the lower extremities of older people. In case of hypertension, aneurysms are common as high blood pressure accelerates damage to blood vessel walls.

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  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an exopeptidase that circulates in blood and is part of the renin-angiotensin system. ACE, secreted by the endothelium of lungs and kidneys, plays a vital role in vasoconstriction. It catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I, a decapeptide to angiotensin II, an octapeptide vasoconstrictor. ACE also degrades bradykinin, a vasodilator. These functions of ACE are utilized to treat hypertension.

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  • Angiotensin I

    Angiotensin I is produced by the action of renin on angiotensinogen produced by hepatocytes. Decreased intra-renal blood pressure and/or reduction in sodium and chlorine transport to the macula-densa influences the production of angiotensin I. It exists as a precursor to angiotensin II, an active component of RAAS cascade.

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  • Angiotensin II

    Angiotensin II is derived from angiotensin I by the action of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that cleaves the two terminal residues. Angiotensin II has endocrine, autocrine, paracrine and intracrine functions and exerts its action by binding to its receptors – AT1 and AT2 – found throughout the body. Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by stimulating the smooth muscles of capillaries and causing vasoconstriction; and also regulates fluid balance. Since angiotensin II has a half-life of 30 seconds, it is broken down into angiotensin III by the action of enzymes called angiotensinases present in red blood cells and tissue capillaries. Apart from hypertension, angiotensin II plays a role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and, possibly, chronic renal failure.

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  • Angiotensin receptor blockers

    Angiotensin receptor antagonists or blockers (ARBs) are also known as AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans. These drugs are receptor antagonists that block type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptors.The angiotensin receptor antagonists modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and are therefore widely used in the treatment of hypertension.

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  • Angiotensinogen

    Angiotensinogen is a precursor molecule for angiotensin and is also called as renin substrate. It is an alpha-2-globulin produced by hepatocytes. It is cleaved by renin to form angiotensin-I. Angiotensinogen levels in the plasma are increased by corticosteroids, estrogen, angiotensin-II and thyroid hormones. Regulation is by the production, utilisation and levels of renin. However, elevated levels of angiotensinogen may inhibit normal activity of renin, thus affecting normal blood pressure.

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