Hepatology - Animated Medical Dictionary

2 hrs    

Video - 90    

The FOCUS Animated Pocket Dictionary of Hepatology, the first ever animated dictionary in the subject, is a comprehensive reference source for the definition of terms related to hepatology. A must-have resource for physicians and students who would greatly benefit from this module, it covers 90 related terms and definitions.

Chapter

Hepatology - Animated Medical Dictionary
  • Alagille syndrome

    Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the heart, liver, skeleton, eyes, and kidneys. Liver damage is caused by abnormalities in the bile duct, which causes bile to accumulate in the liver. This bile accumulation damages the liver and hampers its functioning. People with Alagille syndrome have characteristic facial features, including a broad forehead, deep-set eyes, and a pointed chin. Yellowing of the skin and the white part of the eye, itchy skin, and xanthomas (cholesterol deposition in the skin) are symptoms of liver damage in Alagille syndrome.

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  • Alanine aminotransferase

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase is the enzyme present mainly in the liver. It is alo present in the heart. ALT is released in the blood when the liver is damaged. An elevated level of ALT in the blood indicates liver damage. This ALT level is used to diagnose cirrhosis and hepatitis caused by alcohol, drugs, or viruses.

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  • Albumin

    Albumin, synthesized in the liver, is a water-soluble protein present in the blood plasma. It contributes to the regulation of osmosis and helps transport fats, hormones, drugs, and other substances through the blood.

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  • Alcoholic hepatitis

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a combination of fatty liver, widespread liver inflammation, and necrosis of focal areas of the liver. The prognosis is variable, and it may lead to chronic liver disease although the condition is sometimes reversible. Symptoms may include anorexia (loss of appetite), weight loss, nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness and distension, fever, and some severe symptoms such as liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, confusion, decreased level of consciousness, and cognition.

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  • Alcoholic liver disease

    Alcoholic liver disease is damage caused by the toxic effects of an excessive intake of alcohol. The disease progresses in three different stages: fatty liver, hepatitis, and cirrhosis.

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  • Alkaline phosphatase

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in the liver, bone, and placenta. It is normally seen in high concentration in growing bones and bile. Alkaline phosphatase is released in the blood during bone growth and pregnancy and in case of injury. The elevated level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood indicates liver or bone diseases and bile duct obstruction. An abnormally low level of alkaline phosphatase is called hypophosphatasia, a genetic condition that results in bone deformities.

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  • Ammonia toxicity

    Exposure to ammonia toxicity is most commonly via inhalation, which causes burns in skin eyes and especially in the respiratory system. Severe exposure affects the entire respiratory system, and the ingested ammonia affects the gastrointestinal tract. Theoretically, patients with liver diseases are at increased risk. In severe liver diseases, the liver fails to metabolize the ammonia. This increases toxicity in the blood, which in turn damages the nervous system and leads to hepatic encephalopathy.

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  • Ampulla

    Ampulla is a saclike enlargement of a canal or a duct. The term is used to describe several anatomical structures, such as the ampulla of Vater or the hepatopancreatic ampulla, i.e., the enlargement of ducts from the liver and pancreas where they enter the small intestine.

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  • Anti-HCV

    Anti-HCV is the antibody produced against the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It plays a role in the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in the bloodstream indicates the presence of the HCV virus but cannot determine whether the infection is active or a previous HCV infection.

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  • Ascites

    Ascites is the accumulation of excessive fluid in the abdominal cavity. Liver cirrhosis is the major cause of ascites. Liver cirrhosis leads to portal hypertension, low albumin levels, increased aldosterone levels, sodium retention, and decreased water excretion. Liver disorders, such as clots in the veins of the liver, hepatitis, liver cancer, and pancreatitis, nephrotic syndrome, colon cancer, congestive heart failure, and ovarian cancer also cause ascites.

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